Walnut (40 Photos) - What The Tree Looks Like, Growing, Varieties, Care | Gardeners Info

ZAO Orekhprom, Russia's leading nut processing company, has analyzed the market and concluded that industrial nut production in Russia is in its infancy. However, consumption and the imports associated with it are constantly growing. Only kernels of walnuts in 2019 were imported more than 1.7 thousand tons, in the shell - 458 thousand tons. Meanwhile, walnuts grow well in the south and middle belt of the country. The crop is worthy of a detailed story.

Content

  1. History and interesting facts
  2. Description of the plant
  3. Distribution
  4. Where it grows in Russia
  5. Growing and fruiting
  6. Species and varieties
  7. Harvesting
  8. Harvesting
  9. Cooking
  10. Primary Medicine
  11. Cosmetology
  12. Landscape Design
  13. Gardening
  14. Videos, How to grow walnuts in the middle belt of Russia

History and interesting facts

When there is no reliable data about the origin of an object or phenomenon, history acquires hypotheses and speculations. Such is the case with the walnut. If we omit the beautiful legend of the god Dionysus, who turned his deceased lover into a tree, and turn to the facts, it turns out that in the caves of Iraq were found the fruits of walnut, which are 8000 years old. It was from here, from the territories of ancient Mesopotamia and Persia, that the culture spread throughout the world.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Orchaeologists have evidence that before the Ice Age the present walnut grew even in Greenland. A burning question arises - where then did the \"name\" of the fruit come from, why did the walnut become \"Greek - Greek\".

It is believed that it was brought to Greece by A. Macedonian from the Fergana Valley. The Latin name given in that country, \"Juglans regia,\" translates as \"the royal acorn of Jupiter.\" The fruit was available only to the nobility, until it reached ancient Rome, where the tree began to be cultivated and spread around Europe. Everything that came to Russia at the time from Byzantium was considered Greek (according to the norms of the language of the time - walnut). The language changed, but the walnut is still called Greek.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

The culture could not get to Europe bypassing the Danube countries, whose inhabitants were called Volokh. Thus was born the second name of the nut, Volosh, as it is known in Ukraine and European countries.

The kernels of the plant, replacing meat in its satiety and nutritional properties, are associated with prosperity and fertility by many peoples. Hence traditions:

  1. In Rome, newlyweds are showered with nuts.
  2. In France, bags of kernels are hung out in kitchens to attract good luck and wealth.
  3. French young men put a nut leaf in a girl's slipper to seduce her.
  4. When a child is born, it is customary in many Caucasian nations to plant a walnut.
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

In the Middle Ages the human brain-like cores were considered a medicine for headaches. But pilgrims never stayed overnight under a tree that insects could not tolerate. Indeed, the walnut tree has few pests. The leaves are put in a closet to keep out moths.

Botanists know long-lived walnut trees that are up to 2,000 years old.

In World War I, propellers for airplanes were made from the sturdy wood of this plant.

The great Leonardo da Vinci's painting \"The Lady with the Ermine\" is painted on a board carved from walnut.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Crop description

The plant comes from the genus and family Walnut. A majestic deciduous tree, the walnut spreads by seed and vegetatively.

The main vegetative organ of the plant is the radially symmetrical trunk, or woody stem. It reaches 20-25 m in height and up to 2 m in girth. The entire length of the slender, almost branchless trunk is covered with thick bark with deep cracks.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Wild, domesticated and hybrid varieties are single-sex plants in which one individual develops sexless flowers and separate sexes: female (pistillate), male (stamen). The latter look unattractive: greenish and small in appearance. They consist of a perianth and many stamens. Each flower is not interesting individually, but when gathered in earrings it makes a picturesque picture. Female flowers are arranged singly or in twos or threes at the ends of annual branches. The double perianth of the pistillate flowers is fused with the ovary. The plant is pollinated by the wind.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

The edible core is covered by double protection: a thick fibrous pericarp and a woody shell. The pericarp bursts when ripe and the nut falls out. The shell does not open by itself - it takes effort to open the nut.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

The root system is strong, rod-like, able to extract moisture from considerable depth. Already in the first year of life, a strong root system is formed, and by five years of age it goes 1.5 m deep. At 15-18 years of age, the length of the main stem reaches 3.5 m. From the age of 3-5 years, the tree throws out many thin horizontal stubs. They go 20-50 cm into the ground, capturing an area 20 m in diameter.

Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Distribution

The walnut's natural habitat is in strong, humus soils with good aeration and moderate humidity. A single tree \"occupies\" a large volume of soil, so it endures dry periods easily. This explains its habitat: the Mediterranean countries, Iraq, Iran, northern India and China.

Heathers grow well in Ukraine, Moldova and the Balkans. There are many relict groves in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and other Central Asian countries in the foothills and mountainous areas at an altitude of up to 1200 m.

In Europe the crop grows south of 56°N and only a few specimens make their way northward. In Sweden and Norway specimens can be found even at 59° latitude. But these are isolated, guarded and cared for trees.

Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Where does it grow in Russia

All the South of the country is favorable for cultivation. In Russia, walnuts grow in the Kuban, Stavropol Territory, and Rostov Region. Walnut trees are not uncommon in Kabardino-Balkaria, Chechnya and Dagestan. Northward the number of trees decreases as prolonged low temperatures (-25-28°C) are disastrous for plantings.

Growth and fruiting

The representative of the flora relatively quickly begins to yield. In the 3rd year after planting the seedling, 5-15 pcs. of nuts can be seen. In the 4th-5th year, the yield increases already to 30-40 pcs.

Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

In 10-12 years, the tree can be called mature, capable of giving up to 3000 nuts. A 30-year-old tree will yield 100-200 kg of product per season. True, such harvests are possible in suitable climatic zones. In the middle belt, you can only hope for 20-30 kg. In the southern regions of Russia hazel trees grow for 100 years and more. In Iraq, Turkey, Greece, the tree lives 400-500 years.

Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Species and varieties

Breeders are not leaving attempts to breed new, improved species of walnut. Dozens of varieties are registered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements. The most yielding speciesof culture:

  1. Krasnodarets:a hybrid bred for growing in the North Caucasus region. Trees of medium size begin to bear fruit on the 5th-6th year, fruits are formed on the apical and lateral shoots. One walnut has an oblong-round shape and weighs 12.7 g, which is considered a good value. The shell is thin, the kernels containing 70.1% fat are extracted whole or in halves. Maturity is an early maturing crop. The plant is resistant to brown spot.
  2. Pelan: young variety - registered in 1997. Recommended for cultivation in the southern regions of the country. Trees with rounded crowns grow up to 12 m tall. The weight of elongated ribbed nuts is up to 9.5 g. The early-ripening variety yields 5.1 kg of fruit. Harvesting in Kuban begins in late August.
  3. Aurora:a relatively winter-hardy variety was tested in 1988. Since then, the sprawling tree has been growing in the Transcaucasus. Characterized by a good yield (0.3 kg/m2) and heavy fruits - up to 13 g. The shell is easy to split, the nutritious kernel contains 68.8% fat.
  4. Ivan crimson: a low-growing tree with a small root system is enviable frost-resistant, so it can grow in the Moscow suburbs and the Black Earth zone of Russia. It bears fruit in 1-2 years after planting. Yield is not high, but rounded fruits are tasty, contain up to 58% fat. Maturity dates are medium.
  5. Astakhovsky: winter-hardy variety withstands frosts of -30°C. After short-term thermometer readings of -38°C, the branches freeze, but later grow back. Fruits are large, weighing up to 27 g. The yield of young trees - 10-20 kg. At a mature age gives 30 cwt/ha.
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Краснодарец
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Пелан
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Аврора
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Иван Crimson
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Astachian

The Chinese (Manchurian) species, a tree with huge leaves and a crown, is grown for site beautification. The fruits are not very nutritious - up to 50% fat. The shell is hard and thick - 5 mm.

Harvesting

Like all nut crops, walnuts must mature on the tree. Depending on the timing of ripening, the pericarp, which is green in summer, begins to yellow and crack. When the fruit matures, gaining the right amount of nutrients - they are ready to continue their lineage, because the nuts are the seeds, the reproductive organ of the plant.

The rind releases the fruit, which falls to the ground. To make it easier to pick up the harvest from the ground, you need to mow the grass under the tree, remove the trash. Knocking down the nuts with sticks is not necessary - the branches suffer. Plucking and drying unripe fruits is also not recommended - it takes time and the nuts do not reach the correct ratio of nutrients. After harvesting, the seeds are dried in the sun and sent to storage.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Срок Shelf life of unshelled nuts is 2 years, provided the air is dry and the temperature is low.

Use

The wide use of walnuts is due to their rich content of amino acids, including linoleic and oleic acids; vitamins B, E, K groups; minerals: nickel, boron, magnesium, iron.

Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Cooking

The healthiest way to eat walnuts is raw, but do not eat more than 100 g - the high fat content can be harmful. Walnuts go well with meat, poultry, fish, mushrooms and legumes. Crushed and ground walnuts are included in sauces (satsivi, satsebeli) and dressings.

In baking and desserts walnut kernel has no equal: cakes, creams, pastries, puddings. The nuts are used to make halva, sherbet, and the famous rakhat-lukum. Transcaucasian people have many recipes for national sweets: churchela, baklava, kozinaki, urbech. Incredibly delicious jam made of young green fruits is prepared according to a complicated technology together with pericarp.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Варенье из грецких орехов
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Сациви
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Рахат- лукум
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Чурчхела

Народная медицина

В уникальном растении полезно всё: fruits, bark, leaves, flowers, septa. From ancient times decoctions, tinctures, ointments have been prepared on the basis of the raw material. These preparations have tonic, analgesic and bactericidal effect.

  1. Sprouts heal wounds by activating skin regeneration processes.
  2. Boats are used against worms as a laxative.
  3. Alcoholic tinctures of the bark strengthen the immune system, have antimicrobial effects, improve sleep and memory, clean the blood vessels.
  4. Tinctures and decoctions of peels, shells and leaves help against lung diseases, asthma, lumbar pains, conjunctivitis.
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Настойка на перегородках
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Настой из листьев
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Примочки
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
    Отвар из скорлупы

Народные снадобья можно приготовить самостоятельно, But take as part of the therapy and only after consulting a doctor.

Cosmetology

The beauty industry uses walnut oil. It is used to make creams and masks to soften, nourish and moisturize dry and rough skin. The oil tones fading age epithelium, making the skin supple, relieving inflammation and irritation. Nut oil is known to strengthen blood vessels, so it is added to creams to get rid of spider veins. The valuable cosmetic raw material is introduced into the composition of products for treating burns, psoriasis, eczema.

Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Landscape design

The plant is a wonderful decoration for a country site, a farmyard, a city park. For this purpose, ornamental low-growing varieties are planted, often as a shrub. In the garden, in the dense shade of trees do not grow weeds, so it is reasonable to arrange a recreation area with swings, put a table for afternoon tea. In this case, you can take care of lighting, garden paths, curbs.

In city parks, walnut trees form shady alleys, under which the benches for recreation are located. During the cold season, when the leaves fall, the bare branches are entangled with wires with hundreds of colorful bulbs.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

Woodcraft

The walnut tree is one of the most prized materials in the world. Its value lies not only in the beauty of its structure, but also in its strength, resistance to bending, and resistance to decay. At the same time the wood is good for processing, sawing and polishing.

The bottom of the slender trunk, the bark, the wood pattern is especially expressive because of the contrasting colors. This part of the plant goes into the ground, so it is carefully dug out, then allowed to saw and process.

Another interesting part of the trunk is the mouthparts - outgrowths of old trees, often significant in size and weight. The wood fibers in the mouthparts are tangled and woven together in a unique, whimsical pattern. The burl is used to make expensive furniture that has outlived several generations of owners. They also make caskets, hunting rifle butts, household items, musical instruments, and parquet.

  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info
  • Walnut (40 photos) - what the tree looks like, growing, varieties, care | Gardeners Info

The more north the tree grows, the lighter the wood. However, the darker southern material looks more attractive to the consumer.

Video on how to grow walnuts in the Middle Belt of Russia

Peculiarities of growing walnuts in the Middle Belt. What varieties should be planted to get a rich harvest. When the walnut ripens and how to take care of it. Join in the viewing!

The demand for wood is always high, so walnut trees are universally protected by states -- spontaneous logging is prohibited.

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