With regard to nitrogen complex fertilizers, the mineral known as \"urea\" successfully holds the leading position. However, many gardeners often make one mistake: they neglect the instructions for use on the packaging of the substance. Urea (or otherwise urea) is a fertilizer with an interesting history and great value in the field of agronomy. We will tell you how to use it correctly in your garden, in what quantities and on which plants.
- History of Urea: What is it famous for
- Composition and chemical-physical properties of Urea
- How can you tell if your plants need Urea (Urea)?
- Detailed instructions: the use of urea in horticulture and agronomy
- The values and benefits of the fertilizer
- For which garden and horticultural crops can urea be used?
- Time of application
- Dosages of use
- Form of application
- Cautions for use
- Popular manufacturers of urea (urea) fertilizer
- User feedback on urea application
- Videos on urea application in the garden
History of urea: What the fertilizer is famous for
Urea was first discovered and named in the late 18th century (1773) by French chemist Hilaire Marin Ruehl. The substance under study, which contained the substance in question, was donkey urine. Six years later, scientists L. Vauclin and A. Fourquoi studied the isolated compound in more detail and gave it another name: carbamide (meaning amide of carbon/carboxylic acid, from the Latin \"carbon\" - carbon). It remained so until modern times. But the experiments were imperfect, and there was no way to get the substance in pure form. Only more than 30 years later - in 1808 - J. J. Berzelius was able to make it happen.
It is an interesting fact: Urea is an organic compound as it is formed in living organisms. But proponents of vitalism (doctrines that believe that one cannot obtain this substance except from animal organisms) were adamant. They argued that it was impossible to produce urea artificially. However, thanks to the experiments of Berzelius and his students (F. Wöhler) the world learned that such a synthesis was quite feasible - from inorganic components.
Owing to its properties, urea is a substance whose agricultural engineering and agrochemistry are not the only branches of use. The oil industry is interested in supplying urea to clean oils and fuels from paraffin compounds. Urea is also used to clean the pipes of thermal power plants, the pipelines of waste incineration plants and heating boilers. This is done to ensure that the smoke generated in the systems does not contain nitrogen oxides harmful to human health.
Composition and chemical and physical properties of urea
Urea (urea) is an organic chemical compound, which is white crystals. They do not have a characteristic odor. Solubility in water and other polar solvents is high. The compound belongs to the 3rd class of hazard according to the ecological systematics of the influence of substances on human health (moderately hazardous, non-toxic compound). Chemical formula of urea: H2N-CO-NH2 (diamide of carbonic acid). The mass fraction of nitrogen is 46%. This value allows us to call urea the most concentrated and saturated fertilizer in terms of nitrogen content.
In the table below we give some characteristics of the chemical and physical properties of the fertilizer. The values are most effective and accurate under standard temperature and pressure conditions: 25 °C, 100 kPa.
|Физическое состояние||Твёрдое кристаллическое вещество|
|Растворимость||Растворима. Polar solvents (water, ethanol, liquid ammonia, sulfuric anhydride) are effective.|
|Молярная масса||60,07 г/моль|
|Тплавления||132, 7 °C|
|T boiling||174 °C (when this temperature is reached, the substance decomposes secondary)|
How can you tell if plants need urea (urea)?
Nitrogen is a vital nutrient for any plant. Its deficiency will not go unnoticed, it will manifest itself externally: nitrogen is involved in protein synthesis, growth and development, respiratory and energy processes, storage and realization of hereditary information, etc.
This macronutrient balances active growth and increase of vegetative mass. At first glance, one might think back to school chemistry and wonder: how could plants not have enough nitrogen if the element is 78% in the air?! But the problem is that plants cannot assimilate and convert the molecular form. Therefore, either nitrogen-fixing nodule-fixing symbiont bacteria can help them (for example, they often settle on the roots of legumes), or water-soluble forms of nitrogen: urea or nitrates and nitrites. But nitrates in excess in the harvested crop will not suit anyone. Therefore, urea.
The first outward signs that tell of nitrogen deficiency in a plant are:
- The plant stops forming lateral shoots;
- The vegetative parts of the plant (stem, leaves), stunt in growth;
- Lack of growth in height;
- In acute nitrogen deficiency the color of leaves changes from green to a pale, light green shade with yellow and white tones;
- Leaves wither and fall off prematurely (a bottom-up process since young leaves need more nitrogen and take the last of the old ones);
- These signs occur even before the flowering phase.
Подробная инструкция: Using Urea in Horticulture and Agronomy
The Value and Benefits of Fertilizer
Urea is an organic fertilizer whose nitrogen supply can truly be called strategic in content. It solves the subject of nitrogen deficiency very quickly and effectively. Its value is that the substance is suitable for use on any soil and for any crop. Advantages of urea (urea):
- a plant-available chemical form;
- completely consumed, no unnecessary mass impurities;
- an excellent effect is created by applying diluted urea when watering - absorption will go better (effective for plants that need \"emergency aid\" for nitrogen);
- regulates vegetative growth;
- protein content of fruits increases;
- yields are increased.
Which garden and vegetable crops can urea be used?
This is a universal fertilizer that is suitable for any crop in any phenological condition, any phase of growth and development. This includes indoor and outdoor plants, fruit trees and berry bushes, ornamental and flowering crops, green ornamental plantings (hedges, lawns) and shrubs, seedlings.
Time of application
Another undeniable advantage of urea is that it can be used throughout the season, from early spring to late fall. Autumn application in dry form with mandatory embedding in the soil at 4-5 cm (eg, when digging and preparing the garden for the winter) provides plants resistance to diseases, scab, pests. In spring, embedding it into the soil prevents nitrogen deficiency during the active vegetation and growth phases. During the summer and fall season, 1 or 2 prophylactic feedings are possible according to the dosage required for the particular plantings. The seedlings during the growing season are also very good at nitrogen fertilizing because they are gaining green mass and actively photosynthesizing.
Fertilizer dosage is a gardening tool. Urea is no exception. It is very well absorbed by the plants due to its good water solubility and the minimal amount of impurities. This means that it is necessary to follow the specified dosages for different crops and growth phases. Deviations to a greater extent will lead to oversaturation of the soil with fertilizer and may cause the death of the main mass of cultivated individuals. An overabundance of nitrogen with abundant watering will also bring negative impressions: some of the urea is converted into inaccessible and harmful to plants ammonia. And \"underwatering\" on the dose will cause the soil to be poor in nitrogen and the plants will not be able to gain strength for growth. Dosages for seedlings, fruit trees, ornamental and flowering plants are listed in the table with notes on seasonal and target application.
|Цветы и декоративные растения||15-20 г/м2||Подкормка осуществляется двухкратно. First 5-7 days after flowering to build up vegetative mass, then prophylactically after 21-30 days|
|Cabbage||7-10 g/m2||Fertilizer is applied just before planting young seedlings with mandatory soil incorporation|
|Potatoes, beets Carrots||15 g/m2||Applied in spring when soil is tilled or seedbedded|
|Cucumbers||10 g/m2||Applied in spring when digging soil or setting beds/planting seeds in the ground|
|Tomatoes, onions||15 g/m2||Fertilizer application just before planting young seedlings with obligatory incorporation into the soil|
|Germplants (tomatoes, tomatoes, eggplants)||4 g/m2||Applied twice in the same dosage, in liquid form according to dilution instructions|
|Fruit trees (apple, plum, cherry, pear trees)||20-25 g/m2||Applied in spring during the phase of active vegetative growth before flowering by root loosening with embedding into the soil in granulated form|
|Berry bushes (raspberry, honeysuckle, currant, and fruit tree, Honeysuckle, red and black currants||10-15 g/m2||Applied in spring by tilling in granular form|
|Bone and pome crops||20 g/m2||Fertilizer applied in summer or fall after harvest|
|Horticulture, currants||20 g/m2||Applied in spring by tilling in granulated form|
|Kale seedlings (white cabbage and cauliflower)||15-20 g/m2||Applied in liquid form, diluted in water, as directed. The dose increases according to growth (15 g/m2 - in the phase of 3 true leaves, 20 g/m2 - 2 weeks after the first application)|
Form of application
According to its intended purpose and plant type, urea can be applied in three forms:
- Crystalline/Pelletized(applied to the soil under tillage in the fall or spring before preparing for planting - about a week in advance to allow the pellets to disperse the volume of the soil fertile layer. Continuous use in this form will acidify the soil, so periodically it is also necessary to apply the acidifying agent separately from the urea);
- Liquid: watering (mainly for seedlings and plants with delicate, unstrengthened root systems);
- Liquid: spraying (for berry crops and fruit crops during fruiting season during weather changes, temperature cataclysms to strengthen).
Предостережения при использовании
Применяя удобрение карбамид, помните:
- Must follow the dosage listed in the instructions for the substance. If the instructions are not available, study the fertilizer handbook first or consult other open sources of information: experienced neighbors, magazines and the Internet;
- Apply best with personal protective measures: gloves, respirator (especially if working with hot water solutions to prevent burns and harmful fumes), avoid contact with exposed skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth;
- Urea storage conditions are quite strict, but also known to most: dry place, closed package/container, out of the reach of children;
- Care for an overabundance of fertilizer in the soil to avoid accidentally causing death of seedlings or seeds;
- Before compounding in the soil with other fertilizers, study their compatibility. Urea is an organic fertilizer and does not mix well with calcium and ash fertilizers.
Use this fertilizer on the farm and be aware of certain contraindications:
- Categorically must not be eaten! May cause swelling, food poisoning and esophageal burns;
- Before children;
- Do not use a higher dosage than the manufacturer recommends as it may cause leaf burns and plant death;
- Do not apply the fertilizer to the soil surface without penetrating it deep;
- Constant application of urea in excess will stop flowering of the plants, so the dosage must be strictly observed.
Popular manufacturers of urea (urea)fertilizer
In the Russian market today, the most popular manufacturers in retail garden stores and online sites are:
- Akron Holding Company;
- Azot Novomoskovskaya AK;
- OJSC Mineral Fertilizers;
- Azot Perm;
- Nevinnomyssk Azot.
Дешёвая cost and convenient packaging (mostly 0.8-2.5 kg) makes the fertilizer in demand among professional agronomists and gardeners. For large farms and farm-greenhouses producers supply in large packaged lots of 10 kg and above. The average cost per kg varies from 38 to 60 p/kg (depending on wholesale or retail sale).
World market leaders in the production and import of urea are China, India and the countries of the Middle East (Qatar, Iran, Saudi Arabia etc.).
Uploads of Urea
Feedback from real buyers and internet users - an excellent opportunity to give one's opinion about the fertilizer or to complete the product image. Here are the comments of Russian gardeners and vegetable growers we have managed to collect on the forums and websites where the purchase and sale of urea on household plots and farms was discussed.
\"I like the fact that it dissolves instantly in water, no dilution difficulties. The nitrogen is in a form accessible for the plants, and most importantly, it does not convert into nitrate form - for me, this indicator of the ecology of self-grown foodstuffs is a priority. The only thing worth noting is that the dosage must be respected, sorry if your plants haven't been fed for a very long time. If you exceed it, you can cause damage to the vegetative parts of plants, there will be burns.\"
Nina Igorevna, Tver:
\"I don't know a better means for fertilizing plants in the vegetable garden for over 35 years! How nice to look at the sprouts and flowers, which amicably started to grow after using the fertilizer. I apply it in different ways. Urea is well soluble in water, so in the season and in the off-season my garden is not left without nitrogen. I don't see any minuses - thanks for the low prices and decent quality.\"
\"My husband and I live in the middle belt of Russia, which is known for its sharp temperature variations and changeable weather. We use urea to fertilize plants in the open ground and in the greenhouse for health improvement. We have not noticed any disadvantages: the price is adequate and there is a result. And what is the best result for gardeners? That's right, a healthy harvest!\"
Alexei, Voronezh region:
\"For a gardener like me, urea is the best nitrogen fertilizer. I gained experience gradually: I learned that plants cannot fix nitrogen from the air themselves, and they need it vitally for photosynthesis and mass gain. And suddenly, if the season is not happy with high temperatures and abundant rain, urea application definitely helps. I advise everyone to buy it, you will not regret it.\"
Rinat, Krasnodar Territory:
\"A good inexpensive fertilizer with a wide spectrum of action. However, it is worth recalling that it is not a panacea for all garden diseases. I use urea for fertilizing fruit trees and bushes on my plot, beds in the garden. My wife uses it in her garden. Video on application of urea in the garden
What benefits is urea for plants. Peculiarities of urea application. What it should not be mixed with and when it should be used. Join in the viewing!
So you have read the history of the discovery, the instructions for the use of urea in agronomy and the precautions associated with the use of the fertilizer. Remember that despite its effectiveness and versatility, the substance is classified as moderately hazardous. Observing safety precautions and manufacturers' recommendations, you will be able to use urea for the benefit of your garden and vegetable garden. We hope that our article will be a good help on your way to an abundant harvest and a beautiful, lush garden!