Cladosporiosis is a common tomato disease, the first sign of which is the appearance of brown spots on the leaf plates. The infection is active in early July and affects young and mature tomato bushes. Initially damaging the leaves, the disease gradually moves upward and passes to the fruits. To exclude infection, timely preventive treatment of plantings is necessary. If the appearance of cladosporiosis could not be avoided, folk, biological and chemical means are used for treatment.
- What is cladosporiosis
- Why does it occur in tomatoes in the greenhouse
- What damage does cladosporiosis do to tomatoes
- Top 10 products with 100% effectiveness
- How to prevent cladosporiosis? EffectivenessOrdan
- Profit Gold
- Bordeaux liquid Liquid
- Biological methods
- Natural methods
- Prevention of cladosporiosis
- Tomato varieties, disease-resistant
- Video on how to beat cladosporiosis
What is cladosporiosis
The causative agent of cladosporiosis is a special parasitic fungus Cladosporium fulvum cooke (Fulvia fulva), which usually affects tomatoes grown in winter greenhouses. By attacking the plant, the pathogen causes gradual desiccation of leaves and the formation of a large number of hard bulging spots on the fruit. They can be brown, brown, yellow, or light green in color, so the disease is often called olive or brown spot, or leaf mold.
The phytopathogen affects leaves by greatly reducing photosynthesis, which hinders or completely stops the supply of nutrients to parts of the plant.
Timely control of the disease can result in 30-50% yield loss.
Why it occurs in tomatoes in the greenhouse
If the fungus is introduced into the plant or soil, it actively spreads spores and mycelium and quickly proliferates. It is impossible to notice it with the naked eye, so the grower becomes aware of the disease already when negative symptoms form. The fungus spores are carried by water, air masses, through the soil, so the whole garden can be infected in a short period of time.
The fungus survives even under prolonged drought, severe frost and exposure to other diseases.
If the damaging factors affect for a long time, in the open ground some of the fungus may die. The greenhouse, however, creates the most favorable conditions for its development:
- preservation of heat;
- high humidity;
- protection from severe frost.
It is easy for the fungus to spread throughout the greenhouse and multiply rapidly. The formation of brown spots on the crop is twice as fast.
What harm does cladosporiosis do to tomatoes
The disease develops rapidly. It can localize on both young bushes and mature tomatoes.
It gradually causes the following damage:
- damage to lower leaves, making the grower not immediately aware that the plant is infected, giving time for the fungus to spread;
- quick spread to all tomatoes, leading to partial or complete death of fruits in 1 month.
If infection of the fruit has occurred, it is impossible to cut off parts of the tomato with the fungus. It persists even on healthy areas, but is not visually distinguishable.
Pest control measures
Pest control includes 3 varieties of preparations - chemical, biological preparations and folk methods. It is recommended to use several remedies to not only eliminate the development of the fungus, but also to prevent its reappearance. Even a small amount of remaining spores can lead to a relapse of the disease.
Top 10 drugs with 100% effectiveness
Fungicides and insecticides are generally the only ones that are highly effective. They completely destroy the fungal mycelium and spores, which prevents re-infection.
Fungicide designed for plants grown on dacha plots. It quickly destroys cladosporiosis, phytophthorosis, Alternaria and other fungal infections. It contains copper chloroxide and cymoxanil. The product is sprayed on the surface of the plant, it remains on the leaf plates and stems. Substances destroy pathogenic microorganism, restore damaged cells. The drug is intended for treatment and prevention. At least 4 treatments with Ordan (once a day) are required to kill the infection completely.
Fungicide intended for horticultural crops treatment, produced in Sweden. The main active substances of the drug are dithiocarbonate, phenylamine mephenoxam. The product has a fast therapeutic effect without causing resistance of pathogenic microflora. The powder is used to prepare a working solution that is sprayed on the surface of the plant. The effectiveness of the drug is maintained throughout the shelf life, but only if the package is intact. The drug is toxic and dangerous for bees. It is not recommended for permanent treatment, as it simultaneously destroys the beneficial flora and worsens soil quality. In addition to cladosporiosis, it is effective against Alternariosis, Peronosporiosis.
Fungicide produced as a highly concentrated emulsion. It is sold in 5L canisters. The composition contains spiroxamine, tebuconazole, triadiminol. After application there is a fast action with long-lasting protection. The drug can be used to treat and prevent fungus. It is often used on large areas in agriculture. Plants are treated with special spraying devices. Before use, Falcon must be diluted with water to the desired concentration by following the package directions.
A broad spectrum antifungal agent. Suitable for the treatment of plants of various crops affected by fungus, powdery mildew, gray rot. The main active ingredient is phenyl sulfamide. The drug is available in powder form, which should be diluted with water before use. In the absence of rain, its action lasts for 14 days. Unlike other drugs, Euparen is low-toxic, does not pose a threat to the health of people, animals and insects. But it negatively affects fish, so it is not recommended to spray near water bodies.
Fungicide with a wide spectrum of action, effective against cladosporiosis, phytophthorosis, alternariosis. The main active ingredient is chlorothalonil. It is available in plastic containers of different volumes. It is used in the treatment of vegetables, potatoes and crops. Once applied to plants, its antifungal effect persists even after heavy rainfall or watering. It takes effect quickly without causing resistance in the fungus.
A topical fungicide used on farms. It contains iprodione and is available as a dilution powder. Mechanism of action is associated with the blockage of spore germination, destruction of mycelium. The pathogen becomes weaker and dies. The effectiveness is high, toxicity is low. The product can be used in combination with pesticides for more powerful effect.
Fungicide that is widely used in agriculture. It is used for external and systemic protection. The active ingredient is copper hydroxide. It is suitable for the prevention and treatment of fungus. It has a complex action and a low degree of toxicity. Therefore, for its application it is sufficient to have only gloves, goggles and a mask. The price is low and the product can be used for a long time.
Fungicide with a low toxicity level. The active ingredients are famoxadone and cymoxanil. Tomatoes and potatoes are treated with Profit Gold. Even with prolonged use, the fungal infection does not develop resistance.
This is the cheapest but most effective preparation in the fight against cladosporiosis. It contains copper sulfate and quicklime. Before use, the powder is diluted with water in the proportions specified by the manufacturer. Spray it on the plants with a sprayer. The product can be bought under other trade names.
The 2 active ingredients of the product are propamocarba hydrochloride, a substance. It is a systemic pesticide with fungicidal activity and can be applied for 1-2 weeks. It belongs to the 3rd class of toxicity, so it is safe for humans, animals and bees. It is characterized by complex action and long-lasting protection. It can be used at any time during the growing season.
If a gardener prefers to use chemicals, it is recommended to choose only 1 preparation. Multiple products at once can cause a high degree of toxicity, which will harm surrounding animals and people.
Biological methods of treating cladosporiosis are not only effective, but also safe. When they are applied, there is no harm to the human body after consuming tomatoes. Such remedies contain bacteria that help kill the fungus.
Fitosporinoften used Phytosporin, which has the following properties:
- is sold in 3 forms - paste, powder, liquid;
- the active ingredient is Bacillus subtilis;
- has a wide spectrum of action against many fungi;
- is effective even when mycelium and spores penetrate deeply into plant tissue;
- is suitable for treatment and prevention;
- is low toxic.
The most popular form is powder. A solution consisting of 100 g of the substance and 200 ml of water is prepared from it in advance. For prevention of cladosporiosis, it is diluted in 10 liters of water and sprayed on the green mass of plants. For the treatment of the disease the indicated dosage is doubled.
As the fungus can spread again if not treated long enough, it is recommended to spray once daily, for 2 weeks.
There are also other bacteria based products all with identical active mechanism:
- Trichoderma veride;
The above mentioned products can be combined with one another to increase efficacy. If applied regularly, without interruption, the infection can be completely eradicated.
When treating cladosporiosis, fungicides and biological preparations can be supplemented by folk remedies.
- Йодовый раствор. Add 4 ml of iodine to 1 litre of milk and dilute with water to make 10 litres. Spray the plant with a sprayer.
- The herbal decoction. In a container mix 1 tablespoon each of quinoa, nettle and burdock. Infuse for several days, then strain. This is a concentrate and should be diluted at the ratio of 1 liter of broth to 10 liters of water.
The gardener must remember that folk methods cannot be the only means of treatment.
Prevention of cladosporiosis
It is easier to prevent the disease than to fight it for a long time, so it is advisable to use the following methods of prevention:
- maintaining high soil quality through timely application of compost and organic fertilizers;
- maintaining optimum moisture levels, without excessive watering;
- maintaining crop rotation;
- periodic treatment with biological preparations;
- preventive treatment of greenhouse walls and ceiling with fungicides;
- planting varieties of tomatoes resistant to fungal infections.
Soil solarization is also recommended. Choose the sunniest days, covering the soil under a film at this time. Such conditions are destructive to the fungus.
Disease-resistant tomato varieties
If the fungus has affected the plant or the soil, it is very difficult to get rid of it permanently. Therefore, it is better to choose for planting tomatoes that are most resistant to this infection:
- Pink Paradise;
- Cherry Ira;
- Pink Bush.
Даже If the fungus spreads to these plants, it will not be able to penetrate deep into the tissues. The varieties will quickly eliminate the pathogen on their own due to their persistent immunity.
Video on how to beat cladosporiosis
Overview of the most effective drugs against cladosporiosis. Which remedy best copes with the dangerous fungal disease of tomatoes, you will learn by watching this useful video.
Cladosporiosis is a dangerous fungal infection of tomatoes, which is difficult to get rid of. However, if timely prevention and a comprehensive treatment approach are used, it is possible to maintain healthy plants and a good tomato crop.