Pruning Grapes In 2022: Instructions For Beginners - How To Prune Grapes Correctly | Gardeners Info

There is an opinion that grapes grow only in the southern regions, but this is not entirely true. Our country's breeders have developed many varieties that grow successfully in Siberia, the Far East, and the northern regions of the country. In order to get a harvest of grapes, it is not enough just to plant a couple of cuttings in the ground. Grapes need good care and formative pruning.

Content

  1. Why grapes need pruning
  2. The structure of the grapevine
  3. Time to prune grapes
  4. What age do you prune grapes after
  5. First year after planting
  6. Second year after planting
  7. Third and subsequent years after planting
  8. Stamp pruning
  9. Rules for vine pruning
  10. Tools, Pruning Tools for vine
  11. Lunar Calendar Pruning
  12. Trimming in Spring
  13. Trimming in Summer
  14. Trimming in Autumn
  15. How to stop the weeping vine
  16. Tips for beginners
  17. Videos: A detailed pruning scheme for grapes

What vine pruning is for

To get a decent harvest, you must learn how to regulate shoot growth. The vine is a fast grower, capable of growing up to 2m long in a season. If you do not form the vine, in a couple of years the grapevine will become very intertwined. Up to 20 buds form on a long branch, from which fresh shoots emerge.

  • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
  • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

The vine bush is rejuvenated during pruning. By cutting out non-bearing or diseased shoots, new shoots are encouraged to grow on which grape brushes are formed. Proper pruning increases the immunity of the plant, makes the bush more neat. It makes it easier to care for the plant, each branch is well exposed to the sun and ventilated.

Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

If the vine is not pruned, it will quickly become intertwined, turning into an impassable jungle. The shoots on the vine will become thin and brittle, the berries on the grapevine brush become shallower, and the taste of the berries becomes more sour.

Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

The Structure of the Grapevine

To understand the pruning of the grapevine, you must remember the term names of the vegetative parts of the grape.

  1. Head. The part of the bush from which the vine arms (shoulders) develop.
  2. The vine arm (shoulders). This is an old perennial branch, it is easy to identify by its appearance - it has a dense dark bark and is much thicker than the others. From the eyelets left on this branch, young shoots grow that must be formed every year.
  3. Fruit arrow. This is an annual grape shoot that has several buds (or eyes) on it. The number of buds on a branch is no more than 10, and it is from these that shoots with bunches of grapes grow. After the harvest, the fruit arrow with the new shoots is completely cut out.
  4. Substitute bough. This is an annual branch with a small number of eyes (no more than 4-5 pieces), which is left as a replacement after the fruit arrow is cut out. Two replacement shoots are grown from this branch. The following year, new fruiting arrows with grape brushes grow on it.
  5. Assemblage. A second-order shoot, developing from the axils of the leaf, to be cut out.
  6. Fruit link. This is the part of the bush that consists of an arm (a perennial branch) and newly grown branches. From these annual vines, green replacement shoots grow on which grape brushes are formed. In the fall, the shoots mature and become replacement boughs from which new fruit links are formed.
  7. Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Times for pruning grapes

    Times for pruning grapes depend on weather conditions and regional climate. The branches should not be allowed to be \"caught\" by frost after the grapes have been pruned. The optimum air temperature after pruning should not fall below +5 degrees. Spring pruning in the northern regions, Siberia, Ural and Far East is done much earlier than in the south where winter comes much later.

    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Autumn pruning of grapes begins 2 weeks before the first frost. The process of photosynthesis in grape shoots occurs until the plant goes into winter dormancy. This occurs 2-3 weeks after leaf fall, so completely fallen leaves are the signal to start autumn pruning of grapes.

    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Trimming in cold regions differs not only in timing from pruning in the south. In the warm climate of the country, the grape branches have time to coppice and mature, so they winter well without shelter. In cold regions, cardinal pruning of shoots is recommended, so that in the short summer the vine has time to gain strength and winter under the cover. The optimum spring and fall pruning times by region are shown in the table below:

    Region nameSpring pruning datesFall pruning dates

    Southern regions of the country, Crimean Peninsula

    1-15 March
      15-30 November

    Volga-Vyatka region

      15-30 March
      October 15-30

    Central Black Earth

    15-30 March
      October 15-30

    Ural region, Siberia

    15-30 March
    &nbsp 10-20 октября

    Дальневосточный регион

    1-15 апреля
      October 1-10

    Northwest region, Leningrad region

    April 1-15
      October 10-20

    Kaliningrad region

    15-30 March
      10-20 November

    Northern region
    (Karelia, Komi Republic)

    15-30 April
      1-10 October

    What age do they prune grapes after planting

    Pruning of the vine begins the first year after planting. Experienced grape growers recommend a fan pruning scheme, which is the best option for beginners.

    First year after planting

    The care of seedlings in the first year of life is limited to the formation of two main arms. During the growing season, all stems are removed from the annual shoots so as not to overgrow the plantings. After the leaves have fallen, the shoots are chased (pruned). For this purpose, select two strong shoots (they are distinguished by bright color), when bending which will be heard a slight crackling. The shoots should be directed in different directions, the remaining branches are cut to the base. On the remaining shoots, shorten the crown by 30-40 cm, leaving only 2 buds on each shoot. Chasing the grapes speeds up the ripening of the branches and prepares them for the winter period.

    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Второй year after planting

    The task of the second year of vine cultivation will be to form four sleeves. To do this, two stronger shoots are left from the four leftover buds on which new shoots grew in the summer. They are tied to a trellis, letting in different directions, then shortened to 2 buds. With this scheme of vine formation, by the third year of planting, there will be 4 main branches (sleeves) up to 10 mm thick, on which new shoots with grape brushes will begin to form.

    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Third and subsequent years after planting

    The third year, the vine begins to form in fan-shape, because two substitute knots have grown on each sleeve. As a rule, by this time the grapes begin to bear fruit for the first time, and the first bunches are formed on the shoots. Experienced grape growers remove the first bunches without regret, so as not to weaken the bush. Four adult shoots of up to 1 m in length and up to 10 mm in thickness are produced on the vine. These shoots should be pruned in autumn by 30-40 cm in length, placing horizontally to the ground. For this purpose, the branches are tied to a trellis at a height of 50-60 cm from the ground, placing them in different directions.

    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    This formation system is named after the famous French scientist Jules Guyot. A physician by training and an agronomist by vocation, he developed for many years a complex for growing grapes using a trellis or wire tied horizontally to the ground.

    Stem pruning

    Another method of vine pruning recommended for beginners is stem pruning. This vine formation is suitable for regions with warm climates because the grapes are grown on a stem high above the ground.

    The bush is formed from the strongest shoot, which is tied horizontally to the ground. All other shoots are cut out. The branch is then shortened by 30-40 cm to stimulate green shoots. After the young shoots appear, the shoots are tied vertically up, leaving no more than 10 of them.

    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    The next year the shoots are shortened, this results in grape brush.

    Vine pruning rules

    The basic rule of grape pruning is that the shoot is cut from the same side, following the direction from the ocellus. In doing so, the fruit arrow must remain above the substitute twig. When pruning, make sure that 3 cm of the shoot remains above the live bud. If you cut close to the eye, the bud will die.

    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Tools needed for vine pruning

    What tools do you use for vine work? The basic tool is a pruner with curved flat blades. Then a mechanical lopper for cutting out large branches and a telescopic lopper for working with dry branches. Garden tools should be disinfected with copper sulfate, manganese or Chlorhexidine solutions before work.

    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
      Секатор
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
      Механический сучкорез
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
      Телескопический Lopper
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
      Disinfecting garden tools

    Grape pruning on the lunar calendar

    Grapes are pruned on a waning moon, when the moon is in Aries, Leo and Sagittarius. On these days, the vitality of the plant is directed downward toward the roots, so the vegetative part endures pruning much easier and is not stressed. Days favorable for pruning grapes according to the lunar calendar in 2022:


    April
                      Month                                     ; Dates

    March

    22, 23 March 31

    19, 20, 27, 28, April 29

    October

    18, October 19

    November

    14, 15, 16, November 23

    December

    11, 12, 13, 21, 22 December
    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Spring pruning

    Spring pruning of the vine is a topic of debate among grape growers for generations. Proponents of fall pruning argue that the spring vine shaping procedure significantly weakens the plants, causing \"weeping.\" The open sap movement floods the buds, preventing the shoots from waking up. This is why grapes are pruned in the direction of the eye.

    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Proponents of spring pruning say that grapes that are preparing for winter rest cannot be pruned because the plant will weaken its immunity before wintering. Therefore, experienced grape growers rely on a simple rule: if grapes need to be covered for the winter, fall pruning can be done 2 weeks before full cover. If grapes overwinter uncovered (in southern areas), spring pruning is appropriate.

    In spring pruning, all damaged, broken, weakened branches are removed from the vine. Fatty branches (thicker than 12mm) should also be pruned because they can take away a large proportion of the plant's nutrients. Weakened branches should be pruned, as should branches growing in the opposite direction. Sleeves should not be allowed to intertwine and thicken each other.

    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Summer pruning

    The summer pruning of vines has sanitary functions. It is necessary to remove the growing stems that grow from summer buds. These can severely weaken the bush by drawing nutrition from the soil. Cut stems should not be left on the ground abandoned, they can put down roots and quickly germinate. But it is not a good idea to propagate grapes in this way, as stepchildren do not bear fruit.

    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    In late summer, the shoots are coated and the young shoot tops are pruned (broken off). This procedure will direct the strength of the plant to ripen the grape brushes that begin to ripen. And also in summer carry out the procedure of forming pruning, thinning bushes. For this purpose, at the end of flowering, the lower leaves of the grapes, on which the bunches are ripening, are cut off. No more than 5-6 leaves are removed per treatment, the grapes receive more light, and ripening begins.

    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
    • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Fall pruning

    In fall, the time for harvesting comes, the ripe brushes are cut off with a pruner. Harvest only with gardening tools. It is not necessary to break off the bunches of grapes by hand, the place of breaking will be jagged, uneven. Also in the fall, pruning, which forms a fan-shaped bush, this procedure is described above (pruning in the first, second years of planting). If the autumn is warm and the leaves of grapes poorly fall, you need to help the plant to drop them. To do this, lightly shake the bush to make the leaves fall faster.

    Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

    Tip! An important factor in proper pruning will be the choice of timing. Look carefully at the preliminary weather forecast. Trim 2-3 weeks before the first frost.

    How to stop the vine weeping

    Prunches are cut in dry, sunny weather so that the wounds on the plants dry out by evening. After pruning, branches may ooze sap, popularly called \"vine weeping.\" This natural process is an indicator of the sap movement of a healthy vine, you should not be afraid of it. To prevent the plant from entering into open wounds, the sap may be stopped by the following methods:

  • painting. The paint contains natural ingredients: olive, chalk and boric acid. The paint is applied in a thick layer to the cut and the procedure is repeated once more after it has dried;
  • water abundantly.This method will not help to completely leave the \"weeping\" of the vine, but will give the vine strength. Together with watering, fertilizers should be made to strengthen the immunity, this will help the plant survive the stressful state;
  • masking with garden varnish, melted wax. Before applying the garden varnish or wax, the wounds should be treated with antiseptic (iodine, greenish, copper sulfate);
  • Etisso \"Artificial Bark\" Lacquer.The specialised stores sell products for disinfecting plant wounds. The varnish has proven to be the best remedy for healing wounds and microcracks;
  • firing.This method is used by experienced grape growers, as it is quite risky. The weeping wound is treated with an open flame of a burner, which seals the cut points with a thin film.

WARNING! This method is not recommended for those who are not familiar with the firing technique, otherwise not only yourself but also the plant may be harmed.

  • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
  • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
  • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info
  • Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

Советы for beginners

If you are a beginning vintner, these general tips are for you.

1. Use gloves and disinfected gardening tools when working with vines.

2. Remember to leave 2-3 cm of shoot above the green bud.

3. The vine is trimmed to the living layer of wood, it has a light green color on the cut.

4. A simple rule of thumb is recommended for novice vintners during vine formation. When pruning branches, leave the correct number of eyes on each fruit arrow, adhering to the following parameters:

  • shoot thickness 5 mm - 5-6 eyes;
  • shoot thickness 7-8 mm - 7-8 eyes;
  • shoot thickness 9-10 mm - 9-10 eyes;
  • shoot thickness 11-12 mm - 12-14 eyes;
  • shoot thickness 13-14 - 13-15 eyes.

If the branch thickness exceeds the desired diameter, the number of eyes is increased. This is because on fat shoots some of the eyes are blind, because the mature branch takes the necessary nutrition for vegetative growth.

5. The cuts are made in a single motion of the pruner without crushing the bark of the shoot. The cut should be even.

6. Pruning grapes shapes the vine for 4-5 years, you should not expect a harvest in the first years of growth.

Pruning grapes in 2022: instructions for beginners - how to prune grapes correctly | Gardeners Info

Video: Detailed Grape Pruning Chart

The video tells about the basic ways to prune grapes. How to properly prune the vine so as not to harm the bush and get the maximum berry yield.

Grapes growing is a very laborious and troublesome business. Only by showing patience can you get a harvest that will please you with delicious berries.

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