Many gardeners believe that autumn is the best time to plant roses outdoors. Well-rooted and successfully overwintered shrubs grow more vigorously in the spring and bloom much more quickly. From mid-September to early October, the soil is still warm and moist and the sun is not as strong, so roses do not need shading as in the spring. Also, regions with mild winters rarely experience frosts during this period, whereas the risk of frost is higher if plants are planted too early.
- How to plant roses in fall
- Place to plant
- Preparing the soil
- Picking seedlings
- Preparing planting material
- Step-by-step instructions for planting roses in fall
- When to plant roses in fall - optimum planting dates
- What to do How to prepare roses for winter
- Videos on how to plant roses in autumn
How to plant roses in autumn
When you start planting roses in autumn, there are many factors to consider that affect the survival and continued success of your plants.
The place for planting
The ideal place for a rose garden should be well lighted but protected from direct sunlight and wind. If the groundwater is close to the surface (less than 1 m), roses must be planted on high beds (40 cm above ground level), otherwise their roots will rot. However, it is only suitable for moderate climates, since the bed will freeze in winter and dry out in summer. To avoid a stagnant liquid, the roses should be planted on a southern slope that will quickly drain in the spring after the snow has melted.
To plant the roses, choose a place away from trees and other tall plants that will create shade. Especially \"bad\" neighbors for the rose garden will be ash, maple and birch - their extensive root system impoverishes and dries up the soil around them. At the same time it would be great if the northern side of the rose garden was protected by a hedge against draughts and wind blasts.
Bad forerunners of roses are members of the Rosaceae family - almost all fruit and berry crops grown in the household plots. So it is best to plant a new (unploughed) bed in a new bed.
Preparation of soil
Roses like fertile, well-drained, loose, airy and water-permeable soil with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction (pH 5.5-7). Acidic soil is deoxidized by adding dolomite flour or lime. The thickness of the nutrient layer should be at least 40 cm. Plants will not grow well on dense clay and light sandy soils. Excessive wetting of the soil should also be avoided.
Sandy soil requires preliminary preparation before planting roses. For this purpose, 2-3 weeks before planting, it is recultivated and decomposed compost, humus and sand are added. If there is no organic fertilizer, peat and mineral complexes are used. Roses need fertilizing in the fall because they will continue their growth and development until the real cold weather arrives.
Autumn is the best time to buy and plant rose bushes. In spring, after a long period of storage, the plants are weakened and therefore may not take root once planted.
There are 2 types of rose seedlings on the market:
- rootstock: Grown by cuttings and with their own root system;
The hardiness of grafted seedlings is largely determined by the type of rootstock the graft was made on. Rose canina (R. canina) is an excellent option.
Do not be afraid to purchase seedlings with an open root system. Firstly, you can examine their roots in detail, and secondly, if the roses have been dug up recently, they should take root well in their new location.
Saplings should be bought from specialized nurseries or reputable sellers. What must be looked for upon inspection:
- the root system should be well developed in all directions, with no rotten areas or spots;
- suitable seedlings for planting should have at least three strong shoots;
- healthy planting material will have smooth, glossy, deep green, not wrinkled stems and sharp spines;
- the leaves of seedlings should be dark green and clean - without flecks, spots or other signs of disease;
- the root neck should be strong, 8-10 mm in diameter.
You should also evaluate substrate quality when purchasing seedlings in pots and containers. Too loose a substrate is likely to mean that the plant has only recently been planted, so the quality of the roots may be poor. You should also check whether the clod breaks away easily from the container walls. This, too, helps to determine how long the plant has been in it.
Preparing planting material
Preparing seedlings with open root systems for planting in the fall:
- Roughly one day before planting, the seedlings' roots should be dipped in water;
- All leaves should be removed with sharp garden tools;
- The shoots should be trimmed to a length of 30 cm;
- Damaged roots removed completely, and rotten roots cut off to a healthy area, then shortened to a length of 25 cm;
- All buds below the grafting site are removed. This will prevent the formation of wild shoots.
To prevent disease, treat seedlings with a 3 percent solution of iron vitriol and then immersed in a putty made of cow dung and clay.
Saplings with closed-root systemsdo not require prior preparation before planting.
Step instructions for planting roses in autumn
How to plant roses with an open root system:
- Dig holes 40-50 cm in diameter and 50-70 cm deep on the chosen site. This should preferably be done 14-20 days before planting. The top fertile layer in this case is removed and put aside separately - it will be needed to fill the voids after planting.
- If the soil is dense, at the bottom of each planting hole is required to pour drainage - claydite, pebbles or broken bricks. Sandy soil is \"weighted\" with a 7-cm layer of clay. Put fertile soil on top and form a slide.
- Place the seedling on it, carefully straightening its roots.
- Fill the empty space in the hole with the soil left after digging the hole, or a special soil mixture. The grafting point or root neck of the plant should be 5 cm deeper into the ground (for stem roses 10 cm deeper).
- Slightly compact the soil around the plant from the edges to the center and water it liberally with 1-2 buckets of water per bush. To ensure that the moisture is absorbed more evenly, water in several stages. Also, regular water can be replaced with a solution of root growth stimulant.
- For moisture retention and to prevent roots from freezing during frosts in autumn, freshly planted roses should be capped with a 15-20 cm layer of dry peat. Two weeks after planting, the piles are lightly flattened.
The distance between bushesshould be made based on the type of rose to be planted:
- polyanthus, tea-hybrid and floribunda roses - Z0-60 cm;
- park roses - 75-90 cm;
- pland and stump roses - up to 1 m;
- David Austen English roses - 50-60 cm;
- bordure (miniature) - 25-30 cm.
Roses with a closed root system are planted without disturbing the root ball, the order is otherwise the same, only the mound in the center of the hole is not made. The planting hole for such seedlings should be twice the volume of the root ball.
When to plant roses in autumn - optimum planting dates
The autumn planting of roses should be done one month before frost. In most regions of Russia, this period lasts from mid-September to early October. In northern regions, planting should be done 2 weeks earlier.
For plants to intensively build up roots while their buds remain dormant, the air temperature during the day should be between +10 and +15oC, and at night it should not fall below +5oC.
|Region||Recommended planting dates|
|Central Russia||Mid September|
|Southern regions||First decade October|
|Ural and Siberia||First decade of September (considering weather conditions in the near future)|
|Podmoscow||Middle of September, at +10 to +5 degrees|
What to do if you are late in planting roses
If the weather in autumn has gone bad suddenly and the purchased seedlings are not planted in the open ground, you should not rush into planting. Under such conditions, young plants are unlikely to take root. In this case, it is better to bury them in an inclined position in a greenhouse or a trench dug in unprotected soil (depth of about 40 cm) and leave them until spring. When frost arrives, cover the seedlings with pine branches and peat, and cover with snow on top.
The seedlings can also be planted in pots or containers and hidden in a cellar with a constant temperature of about 0 degrees.
Main care after planting
After planting in autumn, roses require no special care. The rainfall during this period will be enough to keep the bushes well hydrated. But if it will not rain for a long time, the young plants will need periodic wateringwithout overwatering.
Fertilizerwill not be necessary yet either. The fertiliser you applied during soil preparation and planting will be enough to nourish the plant. Nitrogen fertilisers in particular should be avoided. They stimulate the growth of shoots which will be too weak to survive the winter and therefore will freeze.
The pruningof roses planted in the fall is usually postponed to the spring. Two viable buds are left on each seedling and the cuts are treated with garden varnish. When pruning, a sharp and clean pruning shear should be used. Dull gardening tools can cause wounds through which pathogens can easily penetrate. The cut is usually made to about 0.5 cm above the leaf bud.
All diseased, thin and too old shoots should be cut out completely and healthy ones only shortened.
Mulchingcan help avoid an earthy crust after watering, which greatly reduces the air permeability of the soil. Mulch also protects the root system of roses from overheating in heat and from overcooling in frost. Suitable materials for mulching are compost, humus and peat. The optimal layer thickness is 7-10 cm.
Roamingmust be done after each watering or rainfall in the absence of mulch up to the winter cover-up and the first frost. Loosen the top layer of soil to prevent crusting.
How to prepare roses for winter
Preparing roses for winter is a very important part of care after planting in autumn. When temperatures will dip below 0 degrees at night, you should arrange to cover the plants with insulating materials.
One of the schemes for protecting roses from frost:
- Cover the rose bushes with pine lapnuts;
- Put a 15-centimeter layer of sawdust or fallen leaves on top;
- Install plastic or metal arcs up to half a meter high;
- Tension the covering material over the arcs;
- Reflate the covering continuously until ambient temperatures drop to -11 degrees.
- When permanent frost has set in, the venting should be stopped and the gaps between the arcs and the agrofiber should be sealed.
Video on how to plant roses in autumn
Watching this video will show you how to plant roses in autumn and what to do if you cannot plant rose seedlings anymore, but need to save them until spring.
If you do the autumn planting of roses in the open ground according to all rules, the plant will certainly take root and will certainly produce a furry flower the very next spring.