To grow your own fresh cucumbers in a bed, you do not have to have the knowledge of an agronomist. It is enough to follow a few general rules: choose a place to plant, sow the seeds and take care of the cucumbers.
- How to choose the right seeds
- Seed preparation
- Cucumber planting dates by region
- Favorable days for planting cucumbers according to the lunar calendar 2022
- Sowing cucumber seeds
- Sowing method
- Sowing on a bed
- Sowing care
- Forming cucumbers
- Diseases and pests
- Videos: Proven ways to plant cucumbers outdoors
How to choose the right seeds
The most important condition for a good harvest is the right choice of seeds. Cucumbers can be either a variety or a hybrid. Varietal cucumbers are plants crossed within the same species. The main shoot of a variety cucumber first sets male flowers, called \"empty blossoms.\" Cucumbers require bee pollination to produce female ovaries. It is such cucumbers most often planted in the open ground, because in greenhouses bees do not always fly in. In addition, honeycomb cucumbers produce many seeds that will completely repeat the characteristics of the \"parent\" variety.
Hybrid cucumbers are fruits obtained by crossing different species that have different characteristics. These cucumbers are called parthenocarpic cucumbers and have predominantly female ovaries. The advantage of hybrid cucumbers is that they give a good harvest, able to withstand the vagaries of nature. They have better properties (size, taste) than the parent plants. The disadvantage of F1 cucumbers (this is how hybrid varieties are called) is the minimum number of seeds. Harvested seeds will not give a repeated harvest, they can only be used for fresh food.
Experienced vegetable growers when choosing cucumber seeds are guided by the following: hybrid cucumbers are planted first in the open field, which provide an early harvest. Then cucumber varieties that are suitable for winter storage are planted.
Many gardeners sow cucumber seeds in the open field and then wait a long time to sprout. In order to speed up the process, experienced vegetable growers plant pre-sprouted seeds.
Since cucumbers are heat-loving plants, planting seedlings in the open field is done when the threat of night frosts passes. This is usually the first of June. To get an earlier harvest and provide yourself with the first vitamins from the bed, sowing seeds begin 3-4 weeks before planting cucumbers in the ground.
Tip! To grow seedlings, calibrate the empty seeds. Seeds are poured into a dish with salt water. After 15-20 minutes, inspect: quality seeds will sink to the bottom, but empty seeds will remain on the surface.
After calibration, the seeds are washed with running water and dried. The next step is to sanitize the seeds. Cucumber seeds are dipped for 30 minutes in a dish of water in which manganese is added. This procedure eliminates viral and root rot, and prevents diseases such as powdery mildew and bacteriosis. Then the seeds are dried again.
Times for planting cucumbers by region
The climate differs in our country regions, while in the south spring begins in March, in the northern regions the long-awaited heat comes much later. Timing of sowing seeds in the open field:
|Название региона||Сроки посадки|
Юг страны, Крымский полуостров
10- 15 июня
Северный (Карелия, Komi)
Favorable days for sowing cucumbers on the lunar calendar 2022
March: 3-8, 10-13, 15, 26, 30
April: 3-7, 9-11, 13-14, 18, 25, 29
May: 1-3, 7, 9-10, 12-14, 24, 28
June: 1-2, 7-12, 23, 27, 30
July: 1-4, 9, 11-12, 16, 23, 27, 29-31
Sowing cucumber seeds
Prepare planting boxes with drainage holes filled with soil before planting seeds in the ground. Cucumbers prefer soil with an acidity level of 4.5 to 5 pH. Cucumbers will not grow on more alkaline soils. Soil for planting cucumbers is sold in specialized stores - this is the best solution for planting. It is a good idea to heat the soil you buy in the oven for 20 minutes at 150-170 degrees, this will prevent any pathogenic growth.
In prepared boxes place cucumber seeds so that the tapered tip \"looks\" down. The depth of embedding is 2-3 cm. Distribute the seeds at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other in a staggered pattern. Then the seeds are watered with warm water and covered with foil. After 5-7 days, when sprouts appear, remove the foil and place the seedlings on the window sill.
After the seedlings have two true leaves, the seedlings are piked into separate cups. Further care of cucumber seedlings consists of regular watering. After 20-30 days, the seedlings are planted in the open ground.
Sowing on a bed
For those who do not like to bother with seedlings, plant the seeds in greenhouses or directly in the open ground. Cucumber seedlings need shelter during the first stages of growth, since the optimal temperature for cucumber growth is 18-20 ° C. Carefully watch the night temperatures, if it drops to 0 degrees, cucumber seedlings will die. To protect yourself from disappointment and loss, mulch the beds with seedlings with dry grass, and put a double layer of agrotextile on top.
Another trick to keep seedlings from freezing: watering with warm water. The soil heated during the day will begin to evaporate water, helping the seedlings survive night frosts.
When the threat of a return night frost has passed, the seedlings are planted in a permanent location. Choose a dry and sunny day for planting. Beds for planting flat, without excessive moisture. Planting algorithm is as follows:
- Before planting the seedlings, the soil is digged over the bayonet of a spade, removing weeds.
- With a scoop for planting seedlings, dig holes at a distance of 70-80 cm from each other, distance between the rows 60 cm.
- Before planting in a hole should be added 0.5 l of humus or decomposed manure, adding 1 cup of wood ash. The soil in the hole is mixed, watered with warm water.
- For better rooting of seedlings, the prepared wells are watered with water with the addition of growth promoter (e.g. Epin).
- In each well, plant one seedling, cover with soil so that there is no void around the roots.
- Полейте посадки теплой водой.
Совет! To make the seedlings take root faster, cover the seedlings with agrotextile so the bright sunlight won't burn the fragile leaves. The covering material is thrown over the arcs.
Cucumbers need regular watering, water temperature 20-25 degrees. At lower temperatures, the plant gets a \"cold shower\", cucumbers drop ovaries, and growth stops. Water cucumbers early in the morning or in the evening, after sunset. It is not recommended to water cucumbers during the day, otherwise the bed will become a steam bath.
The frequency of watering depends on the ambient temperature. Water cucumbers every day in hot weather and every other day in smoky temperatures. On rainy days, cucumbers in the open ground do not need to be watered. For 1 bush of cucumbers pour 5 liters of water.
Since frequent watering compacts the soil, the next day after watering, the soil is loosened to provide access to oxygen to the roots. Cucumbers need abundant watering during active growth, but in early August the frequency of watering is reduced to 2 times a week, by the end of the month to once every 7-10 days.
Cucumbers need their first feeding 2 weeks after planting. Cucumbers grow fast, so nutrition is consumed faster. The first feeding consists of 60% nitrogen, 30% phosphorus and 10% potassium. It is Ammophoska, Urea, Ammonium nitrate. Mineral fertilizers are diluted in water (1-2 tbsp. per 10 liters of water), made with watering. For supporters of environmentally friendly vegetables, the first fertilizer will be a solution of humus or decomposed manure (1 kg per 10 liters of water), infused for 7-8 days. The resulting concentrate is stirred in clean water (1 L per 10 L of water) and applied with watering.
Five days after the first feeding, when the cucumber wick reaches 1 m height, the second feeding should be applied. The plant needs a phosphorus-potassium fertilizer for better wilting of the cucumbers. It is Superphosphate, Potassium Monophosphate, Phosphate or Bone meal. Mineral fertilizers are applied with watering (1-2 tbsp. per 10 liters of water), and Phosphate and Bone meal has a long life, so it is applied at planting (0.5 tbsp. per hole).
When plants are watered abundantly and often, calcium is washed out of the soil. Therefore, cucumbers respond well to feeding with wood ash, 1 kg diluted in 10 liters of water, stirred and applied with watering. Such fertilization should be applied under cucumbers 2-3 times a month.
Cucumber stems can grow up to 3 m in height, if not shaped the plant, after a month the stems will intertwine and hinder the development of ovaries. Cucumbers are formed only with long-leaf cucumbers, bush cucumbers are formed on their own.
- Cucumbers are formed into a single wicker. For this purpose, all side shoots are cut off, leaving only the central stem.
- Another method of forming cucumbers: the main stem is pruned at 1.5 m height, the lower side shoots are pruned when the shoots grow out to 50-70 cm.
Forming cucumber shoots is necessary for the plant to spend its food from the ground on yield rather than on vegetative mass formation.
Diseases and pests
The major diseases of cucumbers include:
- Antracnose. Appears as a rusty plaque on the surface of the leaves and is propagated by spores of the Colletotrichum family. Control measures include treatment with fungicides (Phytosporin, Topaz, Bordeaux fluid), removal of diseased leaves, and crop rotation. Appears on soils oversaturated with nitrates; it is manifested as discoloration of leaves, angular dry spots with oily coating. Control measures include treatment with fngicide preparations and loosening of soil.
- White mosaic. Appears as discoloration of leaves, it is covered with white spots. Leaves wither away; the plant throws off the ovaries. Control measures include treating plants with milk solution (10% fat content), sprinkling soil with boiling water. Affected leaves are destroyed.
- Virus mosaic. Appears as small yellow spots all over the leaf surface. Cucumber plants wither and shed their ovaries. Control measures include treatment with manganese or fungicides such as Trichodermin. Appears as a gray plaque on cucumber stems and leaves. Leaves, stems begin to rot, plant dies. Control measures include spraying the branches along the leaf with fungicides such as Topaz or the biological preparation Gamair.
- Fusariosis. Appears as wilting and curling of leaves in the lower part of the stem; fruits become crooked and soft. Control measures include preplanting soil disinfecting, manganese treatment, loosening soil, weeding.
Вредителями огурцов являются: whiteflies, slugs, thrips, spider mites, and honeybees. Pest control measures are regular treatments (once every 3-4 weeks) with insecticidal preparations Vertimek, Klechevin, Fitoverm, Aktara and others. Plant plants with pungent odors (marigold, basil, parsley, etc.) between cucumber twigs, this will deter pests.
Видео: Proven ways to plant cucumbers in the open ground
The video shows several proven ways to plant cucumbers in the open ground, tells how to treat the soil and what to put in the planting hole. Both the seedling planting method and the seed planting method are mentioned. The author also shared the secrets of further care of cucumbers. Присоединяйтесь к просмотру!