In Russia, hazelnut, walnut, Manchurian, black and heart nuts are successfully cultivated. Recently, the exotic pecan has been added to the list. Gardeners, dacha enthusiasts are interested in how to grow the pecan: the requirements of the plant to the soil, light, moisture, what diseases and pests defeat the culture.
- Botanical description
- Benefits over walnut
- Where to grow
- Suitable varieties for our climate
- How to grow the pecan Pecan
- Site and soil preparation
- Watering and fertilizing
- Trimming and overwintering
- Protection against diseases
- Gathering and storage
- Videos, How to sprout and grow the pecan
The native growing places of the common pecan (Carya illinoinensis, or Caria illinoinensis) are the hot and humid wild forests of South America and Mexico. The growth of the majestic trees of the Nut family, bearing fruit for 300 years or more, is aided by winds from the Gulf of Mexico. The tree begins yielding in its 10th year of life. The taste of the nuts is sweet and creamy.
Descriptionand characteristicsof the deciduous hazel:
- Crown:wide, spreading to 40 m in diameter. Under natural conditions spherical, with dense shade. Height of tree of genus Hickory - 45-60 m.
- Trunk:strong, straight, reaches 2-2,5 m in girth. The wood is harder than oak, the sawn wood has a unique structure, therefore the wood is used for expensive furniture.
- Bark: smooth on young trees, on old ones it is rough and thick, covered with deep cracks, stratifying into plates.
- Branches: long, strong, gray or gray-brown. On young trees, they are lenticular in color. Branches are densely covered with foliage.
- Leaves:bright green, emerging from pointed, ovate, downy buds with supratip scales. Leaf blade of some varieties is long, 30-50 cm, 2.5-7 cm in cross-section. The leaf of plants adapted to Russian conditions reaches 10-12 cm. Neparate leaves are sessile, or on a petiole 5-6 cm long. They remain on the tree for a long time, falling off by December.
- Flowers:divided into male - in the form of sepals, and female - gathered in spikelets. They appear in May or early June. Pollination requires wind, insects and growing trees nearby.
- Fruits:are covered with a leathery husk until ripe. In the fall, the husk dries and cracks almost to the base. The oblong nuts fall to the ground - the harvest begins, lasting until April. The seed is 4-6 cm long, brown in color with distinctive dark spots. The shape is oval, tetrahedral, with a pointed tip. Surface smooth, shiny. The shell is thinning as it matures, and splits open easily. Exposed bipartite kernels beige in thin red-brown skin. Soft and thin septa are present only in some varieties.
Преимущества over walnuts
The fruits are similar in appearance, As is the nutrient content. Macronutrient content (potassium, phosphorus, magnesium) and micronutrient content (iron, copper, chromium, zinc) are about the same. The North American relative has a more balanced vitamin composition and is famous for its unique form of vitamin E which slows down the aging process.
Mild oily taste without bitterness and the delicate texture of the kernel distinguishes pecans from walnut, rich in iodine.
Energy value of 100 g of fruit is 736 kcal. Pecans contain 71% fat: hunger goes away quickly, but do not overeat.
Medicine has observed and studied the property of pecan pulp to inhibit the development of breast, prostate and colon cancer. Oleic acid successfully blocks the growth of malignant tumors. Extracts of the plant are used to make and produce the drug \"Gamma-tocopherol\", which recognizes and kills diseased cells.
The B4 present in excess in Caria illina is not found in walnuts. The vitamin is responsible for the normal functioning of the urogenital, nervous, digestive, and heart and vascular systems.
One reason pecans are grown everywhere is the strongest antioxidant qualities. According to the ORAC antioxidant index, the fruit of the Hickory family tree is the leader among its \"brethren\": it binds and removes free radicals, toxins, heavy metal salts.
Where to grow
Pecan takes root in places with hot climates, where the number of sunny days per year prevails. In Russia these are: Black Sea coast (Sochi, Adler), Crimea, North Caucasus (Stavropol Territory), Rostov region. However, some pecan varieties have also reached the suburbs of Moscow.
Big plantations are spread in Abkhazia, the Lenkoran district of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Small orchards are present in Belarus and the southern regions of Kazakhstan. Pecan groves can be found in Moldova and Ukraine.
Matching our climate varieties
Botanists number 150 varieties of Caria illyana. More than 200 years ago, the pecan was grown in the United States in Iowa, Texas, and Indiana. Then plant breeders took care to breed frost-resistant hybrids which also proved suitable for cultivation in the moderate climate of the Russian middle latitudes.
- Indiana (Indiana)tolerant up to -35°. Its single fruit mass is 16g, with a taste reminiscent of chocolate cookies.
- Carlson 3 (Carlson 3) is a northern variety with small fruits. Kernels of good quality, long storage.
- Stuart (Stuart) - tolerates temperatures down to -35°. The average length of the sweet kernel is 4.5 cm.
- Busseron)a high-yielding species, the fruits weigh 12 g and taste like chestnuts. The Busseron is suitable for growing in Belarus.
- Major (Major)fruits are rounded, spicy taste, weight 12g. Overwinters at -36° on the thermometer.
- Green River (Green River) is a common hybrid of common pecan, kernels weighing 15 g. Plantings survive winters and spring frosts.
Another variety has performed well in the moderate temperatures of the Midlands, Kariya heart-shaped. The slightly bitter fruits are rich in minerals, plant fiber, and fatty acids.
Hybrid varieties do not have the huge crown and large nuts as in the mother country.
How to grow a pecan
The farming technique for growing Caria pecans is simple, similar to the cultivation of walnuts. The plant itself is capricious - it is difficult to grow the crop at home.
The fruit must mature on the tree and fall to the ground. One that is knocked down by the wind early or picked will not sprout. In autumn, ripe specimens are harvested, dig a ditch 10-15 cm deep in a sunny place, without drafts and stagnant melt water. Moisten the ditch, spread the seeds according to the scheme: between the fruits 15-20 cm, between the rows - 1 m. Fill with soil, trample, and water. Then mulch the soil with peat, sawdust or straw. The germination of seeds is less than 50%. Seedlings are carefully cared for three seasons, only then transplant the tree to a permanent place. The same method can be used to plant seed stock in the spring - late April - but the chances of success will be reduced.
The other spring seed germination method requires stratification. That is, during the cold season, the nuts are given conditions that mimic nature's wintering. For this purpose, the fruits are kept in water for two days in December. Then fill a box or box with wet sawdust or peat, place the seeds and take them to a cool room with a temperature no higher than +4 ° C. Two months keep an eye on the substrate - it must not dry out. By spring the nuts will have sprouted and are ready for planting in the ground.
Preparation of site and soil
Pecan is comfortable in a sunny place. Constant drafts are not suitable, but the site should be ventilated. The soil is suitable for any, except waterlogged and acidic. The structure and acidity of the soil can be corrected with lime. An important condition for growth is drainage. Stagnant moisture and high groundwater ruin the roots of the plant.
Towing the seedling
Young trees grow slowly - the first 2 years are the build-up of the root system. The above-ground part grows by 30 cm during the vegetative season. Seedlings with the height of 1.5 meters are suitable for transplanting to a permanent place.
Transplanting can be done a month before frosts, with warming. The most favorable time is spring. The site is prepared from the fall: dig over the bayonet of a spade, remove stones, weed roots, add compost. Rested and frozen soil is loosened in spring to oxygenate it.
Далее высадку проводят следующим образом:
- Dig a hole 60 cm in diameter;
- Mix the excavated soil with compost and mineral fertilizer;
- Bottom cover with drainage (expanded clay, gravel, broken bricks), top with sand;
- Part of the excavated soil placed in the hole, level it;
- Hit a peg nearby for support;
- Dig the seedling, place in the center of the hole, spread the roots;
- Fill the remaining soil so that the root neck is flush with the ground, tamp;
- Tie the trunk to the support and water.
- Mulch the tree's root zone. Cover if overnight frosts are expected.
Shade plant from afternoon rays for 2-3 weeks. Plant 15 yards apart.
Watering and fertilizing
Frequent irrigation after transplanting. During the hot summer, observe the condition of the soil: if it has dried out by 3-5 cm - water it. A day after watering loosen the soil, weeds are weeded.
First feeding is done in autumn - until this time the tree enough nutrients, which it received with planting. Phosphorus-potassium compositions will help the seedling to survive the winter easier, help build up the bark.
Spring feeding do nitrogen, stimulating the growth of young shoots and green mass. Ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium salt are needed for mature, fruiting trees after 8-10 years of plant life.
Обрезка and overwintering
Young trees are given spring sanitary pruning: Remove frozen, withered and diseased branches, and shape the crown at the same time. As the tree matures and grows, stop pruning. There is no need to shorten the branches - inflorescences will form on them.
In climates with frosty snowy winters, seedlings and young plantings are covered: construct a frame of slats, cover with polyethylene. You may use cottonwood, sawdust and straw, or wrap the trunk with agrofiber.
The exotic crop is not susceptible to diseases. Fungal diseases can develop from overwatering: scab (brown patches all over the plant) and spotting (dark spots on the green).
The first signs of fungus are treated with Bordeaux liquid, Topaz, Oxyhom. Plantings are treated several times with an interval of two weeks. Prophylactic treatment with fungicides is done immediately after the snow melts. Pests do not bother the plant.
Садоводы use traditional propagation methods:
- Семенами. The ripe fruits are planted in the fall in a groove, or the nuts are kept in a moist substrate until spring. The method is the most effective, but it takes a long time to harvest.
- Cuttings.From a young tree, cut corms 15 cm long in summer. Select one-year-old shoots, place the cuttings in nutrient-drained soil. Keep in the greenhouse or at home, water, spray, loosen the soil. Next season, planted in the open ground. For fidelity, the seedling can be kept in a volumetric pot for two more years. Take into account that the plant is dormant in winter, so watering and feeding are reduced, kept cool.
- Copulation. The rootstock should be at least 2 years old. The white hickory variety is most commonly used. The grafting is done in July or February or early March. One-year shoots with several developed buds are taken for grafting. The grafted trees bear fruit as early as the 5th year.
- Sprouting.A single bud with a bark shield and a thin layer of wood is cut off as a graft. The method is applicable to the propagation and cultivation of hickory nuts, but requires precision and accuracy.
Harvesting and storage
Nuts are considered ripe, fallen on their own from the tree. It is not necessary to pluck the fruits, knock them down with a pole, or shake the tree. In September-October the peel cracks and the nuts fall out on the ground - you must constantly pick them up. Harvested fruits are dried in the air 7-10 days. The nut shell is completely covered, so air, nut moths and other pests do not get inside.
Unpeeled nuts are stored for 1 year. In a cool, dry room, the shelf life extends to 2 years. The same amount can be stored in the freezer.
Without peel, the fruit spoils quickly because it is greasy and sweet. Peeled kernels should be consumed within 2 weeks. In the refrigerator, the shelf life extends to a month. A sign of spoilage is a bitter taste. Rotten nuts should not be eaten. The product is used in confectionary products (pastries, candies), in preparation of snacks, meat and fish dishes.
Russian farmers harvest up to 15 kg of nuts from an adult tree. On the American continent century-old pecans yield 200-250 kg per season.
Video on how to sprout and grow a pecan
Technology of growing a pecan on your own garden plot. Join in the viewing!