Pears today are successfully grown by both amateur and experienced gardeners. It is a tasty fruit that contains various useful microelements and can be eaten fresh as well as made into various compotes and jams. Properly caring for these fruit trees, you can get a great harvest, and there are dozens of different varieties of pears, which differ significantly in taste and purpose of the harvest. Let's learn more about how to properly plant and care for pears.
- Best varieties
- Pear planting
- Pear care
- Good pruning
- Pear diseases
- Videos on proper planting and care of pear
The best pear varieties
Horticulturists today have produced dozens of different pear varieties and numerous hybrids, which are zoned for particular regions and are characterized by rapid growth rates.
Clapp's Sweetheart is a medium-grown variety with elongated, large fruits. The flesh of the pear is sweet tasting, very juicy and tender. The only disadvantage of this variety is late fruiting, which usually does not begin until 6-7 years after planting.
LadaPear is an early-ripening variety bred by crossing Olga and Forest Beauty varieties. It is a winter-hardy and yielding hybrid that has a great taste of ripe crops. The grower will be able to pick the first fruits in the fifth to sixth year of the tree's life.
Nectar is a late maturing variety with large, sweet-tasting fruits. One of the features of these pears is their excellent storability, which allows the harvested fruit to last as long as possible. It begins to bear fruit the fifth year after planting and is easy to care for and drought tolerant.
Pear prefer loose soil that is airtight. Ideally, the soil should contain large amounts of clay, which allows it to retain life-giving moisture. It is best to plant the pear tree on the west or southwest side of the plot, and the location should be sunny but not sultry.
The best time to plant pears is autumn, seedlings take root well in the new place, after which they quickly start growing. Fruit trees can also be planted in spring, but not only will you need to mulch the soil to protect the root system from the cold, but you will also need to ensure that the plants are regularly watered.
If planting seedlings is done in spring, the pit should be prepared while still in fall. A special fertile soil will be required for planting the pear. It is prepared from the top layer of soil, which is mixed with peat, wood ash and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. The depth of the planting hole is usually 60-80 centimeters and the diameter is at least 50 centimeters.
The bottom of the planting hole should be covered with a small amount of fertile soil, a peg should be driven in the center, the tree placed, its roots straightened and gently covered with soil. The root neck should be 2-3 centimeters above the ground level. The soil should be slightly tamped, and then abundantly watered with two buckets of water. Additionally, the root circle should be mulched with organic material that retains moisture in the soil.
Maintenance of pear trees
Maintenance of pear trees is not difficult; young trees should be insulated to prevent them from freezing in cold snowy winters. The gardener needs to keep the rootstalk clean, where there should not be any weeds. Under the pear tree, you can plant a variety of siderats, including lupine, thereby enriching the soil and improving the growth of fruit trees.
Water the pears best by sprinkling, water should not only hit the ground near the trunk, but also the foliage. To avoid thermal burns on the leaves, this is best done in the evening hours. If it is not possible to sprinkle, it is necessary to carefully pour water into the ditch made along the rootstock circle. Watering is obligatory in the spring, and also several times in the summer during a severe drought. Also, do not forget to loosen the soil regularly, which ensures oxygenation of the roots.
You will not obtain a good pear tree yield and achieve rapid growth without timely fertilization. The amount of such fertilization depends on the condition of the soil and the characteristics of the particular tree. For example, annual growth of one-year seedlings can be about 40 centimeters, so they will need maximum nutrition, and already mature fruit-bearing trees usually grow no more than 20 centimeters a year. It is believed that it is necessary to feed the pear tree from the second year, doing such work in spring and autumn. Organics are used every three years, while mineral fertilizers are applied annually.
The norm of applying organic is 10 kg of humus per square meter of bedding circle. Of mineral fertilizers, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are used, which are best in granules buried in the ridge circle, which ensures maximum effectiveness and duration of such nutrition. Also on sale you can find special mineral compositions designed for pears and apples, which contain all the necessary microelements. Their use makes the feeding of fruit trees much easier.
The greatest difficulty in growing pears is the pruning of fruit trees, which is necessary not only to improve fruit bearing but also the proper formation of the crown. If a gardener neglects such work, eventually the trees become overgrown, the yield significantly deteriorates, and various fungal and infectious diseases appear.
It is customary to distinguish two forms of crown:
- Free-growing palmetto implies the presence of a central conductor and several single skeletal branches, which are directed in the growth plane.
- With a sparse tiered crown, the branches are thinned and arranged in tiers, having no more than three skeletal shoots at each level.
A proper pruning will form the crown without thickening, the skeletal branches being properly directed, which will guarantee an excellent harvest. Such pruning begins as early as two years of age of seedlings, removing all damaged and incorrectly growing shoots at the same time. Forming skeletal branches begins in two- to three-year-old trees, leaving 6-8 powerful side shoots. In such a case, a mature tree should have 12-14 skeletal branches that depart from the trunk at a 45 degree angle and are equidistant from each other.
Fruit rot, scab, rust and powdery mildew can trouble the grower. As prevention, trees should be treated in spring with a light solution of Bordeaux liquid, and when disease symptoms appear, such damaged shoots should be trimmed, treating trees with special fungicides. With proper care, competent pruning, timely watering and regular application of fertilizers, such diseases can be avoided, which eliminates the need to treat plantings in the garden with various chemicals.
Video on proper pear planting and care
Pear seedling planting technology, Care features for a high yield. Присоединяйтесь к просмотру!