First of all, peppers were considered a heat-loving crop, so they could only be grown outdoors in southern regions. Today, however, cold-resistant varieties have been developed that are perfectly suited for the midlands, and it is also possible to practice agronomic techniques for growing peppers in greenhouses, which allows for excellent yields.
- Best varieties
- The Swallow
- Sweet Bogatyr
- Californian Wonder
- Gardening technology
- Gardening care
- Growing peppers in open
- Harvesting and storing
- Typical mistakes of gardeners
- Gardening videos from A to Z in the open field
The best peppers
There are dozens of different varieties of pepper developed,
The peppers are differentiated by their taste, ripening time, cultivation technique, shape and size. The Swallow variety
Not traditionally popular among domestic gardeners. It is early maturing variety that is perfect for greenhouse cultivation and open field planting. Its fruits have a distinctive green color, it is a cold-resistant variety that is not susceptible to most diseases and easy to care for.
It is a medium-mature variety that has a powerful bush and large fruits. It can yield about 7 kilos per plant if cared for properly. It is a multi-purpose variety, so the harvested product is equally suitable for fresh and preserves. It is an easy-to-care-for sweet peppers and its yield can be significantly improved by additional fertilization with phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers.
It is a medium-maturing variety that produces about 10 large-sized fruits per plant. These peppers are sweet and juicy and are great for eating fresh. All you need to do is to ensure proper care and regular watering, since the fruits may become noticeably bitter if they lack moisture.
Most gardeners grow peppers using seedling technology, planting the seedlings in the first decade of April. Provided quality planting material is used, the seeds have good germination, and seedling care is not particularly difficult. Experienced gardeners recommend planting peppers initially in peat pots, which later eliminates the need to transplant and traumatize the delicate root system of the plants.
Seeds before planting are necessarily disinfected in a light solution of manganese, in which they are released for 30 minutes. Growth can be accelerated and the subsequent yield improved by soaking the seeds in growth stimulants and subsequent treatment with antifungal agents.
The seedlings are best planted in fertile soil that is prepared from one part peat, one part sand, two parts humus with a tablespoon of ash added per kilogram of soil mixture.
The seeds are germinated at 25-30 degrees, when the first sprouts appear, you should lower the temperature to 18 degrees for a week.
So soon as the first two leaves are formed the first feeding is done. To prepare the nutrient mixture, dilute 1 gram of potassium fertilizer, 3 grams of superphosphate and half a gram of ammonium nitrate in half a liter of water. The second fertilization is done with the same mixture about two weeks after the first fertilization.
Transfer the seedlings to the greenhouse usually in late May and early June, as soon as the plants reach a height of 25 centimeters. A few weeks before transferring the seedlings to the greenhouse, they will be hardened by taking them out onto a glazed balcony for 5 minutes, gradually increasing the time the peppers spend outdoors.
Transplanting should not be delayed because the pepper begins to grow actively and becomes crowded in the small container, which may lead to weakening of the plants and subsequent deterioration of the fruiting performance.
The most common technology for growing peppers today is greenhouses, which allow gardeners to get the best yields. Film, glass, and polycarbonate greenhouses can be used, in which the plants bear fruit until the end of September. Growing peppers in the open ground somewhat simplifies the care of the plantings, but it should be understood that in such a case it will be impossible to get as good a crop. In the latter case, it is necessary to choose appropriate varieties zoned for the middle strip.
The soil in the greenhouse should be preliminary recultivated, introducing nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. Also, humus or compost will need to be used, but the use of fresh manure should be avoided. The beds are made 1 meter wide, and the distance between the rows of plants should be about half a meter.
In the immediate transplanting of seedlings, make small holes in which 2 liters of water are poured, then carefully transplant the plants without damaging the root system. The planting hole should be filled with a small amount of humus or peat, which will contain nutrition for young peppers.
Hothouse care is not difficult, the gardener will only need to ensure frequent watering of plants and regular airing of the greenhouse. Before the beginning of mass flowering, the plants are watered twice a week, and during the formation of fruits - every other day. Water should always be used tempered and warm, and ideally you should organize a drip irrigation method of beds. With a lack of moisture, peppers are often sick, and a characteristic gray rot forms on the leaves.
The plants do not tolerate temperature changes well, but you should not refuse to ventilate at all, since temperatures over 30 degrees begin to make peppers sick and significantly decrease their yields.
High-growing varieties should always be tied to a trellis, with additional side branches that simultaneously produce several large fruits.
It is also necessary to regularly loosen the soil to prevent the formation of a surface crust.
Gardeners often find aphids attacking the plants in the greenhouse and these can be controlled with Carbophos.
Use fertilization during the vegetation and active fruit-bearing period to greatly improve yields. In such a case, you can use both organic and specialized mineral fertilizers for tomatoes.
Growing peppers in the open field
The grower will be limited to the warm summer months when growing peppers in the open field, while temperature drops below 13 degrees are sometimes devastating to the plants. Seedlings should be planted outdoors in early June as soon as temperatures are consistently above 20 degrees.
Rain water of 25 degrees is recommended for watering. Be sure to loosen the soil after each watering, which improves the supply of oxygen to the roots.
Like growing in a greenhouse, outdoor peppers should be fertilized, alternating organic fertilizers and mineral formulations. The gardener should remember that peppers are a light-loving crop, so the beds should be placed in a well-lit place with sunlight.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting every two days during active fruit-bearing. Harvested fruits can easily ripen on a sunny windowsill, reaching their marketable ripeness. It is even advisable to harvest peppers slightly underripe, which improves yields without weakening the plants.
The harvested crop can be stored for one to two weeks in the refrigerator, peppers are eaten both fresh and processed, making various preserves and delicious sauces.
Typical gardening mistakes
Gardeners should remember that undesirable predecessors for peppers will be eggplant, physalis, tomatoes and potatoes.
Planting bitter and sweet peppers near each other should be avoided because in such a case cross-pollination occurs, which greatly impairs the taste of the grown crop.
In conditions of insufficient light, the bush grows quickly, but yields are greatly reduced.
The date of planting peppers for seedlings must be calculated correctly, because if you get a week or two wrong, you can greatly reduce the yield of the beds.
Not be lazy to tie peppers to trellises, as bushes grow quite tall, with not too powerful a stem, and heavy fruits can simply break the small-sized shoots.
At temperatures above 32 degrees, the ovaries and shoots fall off and the growth of the plant slows significantly. Therefore, good ventilation in the greenhouse will need to be considered.
No peppers should ever be planted after or in close proximity to beans, leading to a disease like anthracnose.
No need to overdo fertilizer, pepper tolerates excess nitrogen and organic matter in the soil extremely poorly, which slows its growth rate.
Video on growing peppers from A to Z in the open field
How to grow peppers from seed and get a rich harvest. Присоединяйтесь к просмотру!