Balsamina is a long-blooming plant native to Asia and Africa. It grows naturally on the island of Zanzibar. The plant is perennial, but annual balsamina species are also found.
The flower is characterized by a thin and smooth stem with elongated oval leaves that have purple flecks. The coloration of the foliage varies from light to dark shades of green. Flowers are located in the axils of the leaves. Currently, hybrids have been bred with macro flowers and different colors.
Balsamina produces green fruits after flowering. The fruit is a succulent oblong, multi-seeded boll that opens with five twisting sashes. One g contains up to 100 seeds.
There are currently about 500 varieties of the plant. But despite this huge number, balsamins can be divided into just 2 large groups: annuals and perennials.
Однолетники, как правило, выращиваются в клумбах. Perennials are indoor plants.
- The most popular varieties
- Balsamina Waller
- Athena red flame (Athena Juno)
- Tom Samb Salmon
- Care and Maintenance
- Maintaining moisture. Watering
- Housing temperature and humidity
- How to feed and prune the plant
- Feeding at home
- Putting in the ground, Transplanting
- Propagation methods
- Videos on growing and caring for balsamine
The most popular varieties
It has a considerable height (up to 50 cm), making it widely used in landscape design.
Walter's stems are erect, the leaves are green or brownish tinged oval in shape. Blooms profusely in single or bicolor inflorescences.
When choosing this variety, remember that it is extremely heat and light loving.
This variety, besides the high-growing ones, also includes lower-growing varieties such as 'Orange', for example
The most popular ampelina varieties are: Tumbler, Scarlet, Violet, Rose Star, White.
All have compact size and flexible stems, which allows them to be planted in hanging planters.
This variety is distinguished from the others by its large, bright inflorescences. The New Guinean is a perennial, but it does well in room conditions as well.
The leaves of the balsamina are large, dark green with yellow veins. It needs plenty of sunlight to start flowering.
It is resistant to most characteristic diseases and to pathogens. Tolerates direct sunlight well.
This balsamina variety is young. It is very easy to care for and features colorful, velvety inflorescences. The leaves on long, oblong stalks have a pointed tip.
The bush reaches 1.5 meters in height but looks quite compact.
Athena red flame (Athena Juno)
This variety belongs to the macerated annuals. The inflorescences are large, bright red.
Tom Samb Salmon
It is a large, majestic perennial with lush pink inflorescences. The bush is low, 25 cm, and tolerates lack of sunlight well.
The leaves are velvety with muted green hues that have bright pink or red veins.
The variety gets its name from the peculiar shape of its slipper-shaped inflorescences, resembling miniature orchid inflorescences. The flowers are white, with a yellowish or orange border around the edges of the petals on rare occasions. Resistant to spider mite.
Distinguished by abundant flowering and unusual inflorescences: the bush is literally studded with lush, macro flowers that resemble miniature peonies or lush roses.
Petals are downy, velvety. The color of flowers is very diverse - from white to dark maroon.
While it needs constant light, it also feels well in darkened areas. However, if exposed to the penumbra, the leaves will become smaller.
Requires constant moisture.
It is a dwarf variety (20-25 cm). The bush has a lush crown. The leaves are smooth, light green. The inflorescences are small, shades of white or pink. Requires little effort in care.
In room conditions it is a perennial, when grown in a bed it blooms all summer. This variety of balsamina looks delicate and fully lives up to its name.
Care and Maintenance
Before deciding on care, you should know that balsamins love heat and sun. Although, some varieties can grow just fine in a semi-shade.
If you have the opportunity, choose a south-facing window for it. But remember, because the foliage is still sensitive to direct light, long exposure to sunlight must be avoided.
Place the plant where the sun rays will stay for a short time. If necessary, place the balsamina in additional shade.
In cold winters, make sure the pot does not come in contact with the glass. Move it closer to the edge of the window sill where the heat from the radiator is greatest. Remove the flower from the window when airing the room.
Maintain humidity. Watering
Balsamina soil should always be kept moist. In winter, reduce the amount of liquid when watering to 2/3.
Make sure watering water is not hard, and does not contain heavy impurities. For the water to be safe for the plant, let it stand for 2-3 days.
Water the balsamina frequently. Just make sure you don't overwater, otherwise the plant's root system could suffer. If there is constant overwatering, the roots begin to rot.
Housing temperature and humidity
If you remember where the balsamina comes from, it immediately becomes clear why it likes heat and humidity. In winter the temperature in the room should not be lower than +13 C and in summer not lower than +nbsp;+20 C.
If the temperature in the room rises above +22 C, additional humidification in the room should be done. Otherwise the flower will start to dry out. For extra moisture, you can put a container of water next to it.
How to feed and prune the plant
Plant for balsamins should combine the following components: soil with humus (1 part), peat (0.5 parts), sand (1 part). This fertilizer combination will allow it to take root and start growing faster.
For planting, choose early spring before flowering or fall when the plant is already in bloom. The pot should be a small size so that the root system can form more quickly and the plant can form buds more quickly.
Feeding at home
This is done in late winter and early spring when the plant comes out of its dormant state (winter dormancy). Potassium-phosphorus fertilizer is added to the soil once every 2 weeks during flowering. Use nitrogen fertilizer in winter.
Regular pruning is mandatory for balsamina, and is done throughout its life. When the cotyledons appear on the young shoots, prune the top of the main shoot. This allows side shoots to form, thus spreading out the bush.
To give the balsam plant a tree-like appearance, trim it back when the stem is woody.
Then cut off the lower leaves and prune off the main shoot. Treat all cuts with activated charcoal.
Must remember that at the beginning of spring a compulsory pruning of the bush is made by shortening by half all the annual growth of the plant.
To form an even crown, the pot is constantly turned toward the sun by different parts. In this way, the bush will be evenly fluffy on all sides.
It is necessary to transplant the indoor balsamina when the soil becomes depleted.
Young plants need annual transplanting.
The container for planting is chosen according to the root system so it fits completely in the pot. Not much space should be left in the pot. This will speed up the formation of the buds.
Undue and over-extended shoots are cut off. Transplant the balsamina by transplanting.
After transplanting into a new pot, moisten the soil and cover the top with the same soil.
In a large size pot, 2-3 cuttings can be planted at once.
There are 2 propagation methods: seed method and cuttings with rooting. The more popular method is cuttings because they take root more quickly and flowering begins much earlier.
Soak the seeds in a weak solution of manganese for 10 minutes. For the soil you can take a mixture of peat (2 parts) and perlite (1 part). Bury the seeds 7 cm into the ground and then moisten the soil.
Top cover with plastic wrap and place it under a temperature of +20 C to +25 C. Ventilate the soil periodically, thus reducing the humidity.
The first shoots will appear after 7-10 days. Sprouts will dive at a length of 1.5-2 cm.
В warm spring and summer period, cut off the top part of the shoot. The cuttings should be about 7 cm long and have 2-3 internodes. The lower leaves can not be removed.
The cuttings are placed in a container with water, and after the growth of roots transplanted into the soil. The container is covered with a glass jar. Rooting lasts about 2 weeks. Buds appear after 2-3 months.
Видео о Growing and caring for balsamine
Peculiarities of growing balsamine at home from planting seeds to flowering. Care rules for the flower. Watch this video!